Wednesday, May 20, 2020

Examining the Market Structure of Barbershops - 1606 Words

E x t e n d e d e s s a y I n h l e c o n o m I c s T o p I c : Examining the Market Structure of Barbershops in West Amman I n t r o d u c t I o n For a male living in Amman, getting a decent haircut is quite an undertaking. I myself have witnessed this first hand, having tried over ten different barbershops and even trying to cut my own hair at one point but to no avail. The main problem I find here is the lack of expertise in most of these barbershops. None of them seem to have the appropriate training or the skills needed to be able to fully satisfy their customers and give them the perfect haircut. Looking at it from an economics point of view, I was very interested in finding out the market structure which†¦show more content†¦The demand curve for a monopolistically competitive firm is downward sloping but highly elastic due to limited price control. Firms will operate where their marginal revenue curve meets their marginal cost curve Ââ€" at their profit maximization point. Contrary to monopolistic competition, oligopolies involve much less competition with only a few large firms dominating the market and controlling most of the market share. High barriers to entry are set up which allow these firms to maintain their dominance as well as their profits. This market structure is characterized by the interdependent nature of its firms. In order for one firm to survive, it needs to closely monitor the behavior of its rivals. Each firm must consider the reactions of other firms when making their own decisions on output and price. This interdependence between firms is the main reason why oligopolies rarely compete over price. Firms are afraid of starting a price war . If one firm decides to lower its prices, the others will probably do the same in order to remain competitive, so they each manage to maintain the same market share relative to each other, but each one loses some revenue. Also it is not wise for a firm to raise it prices because consumers will t hen automatically switch away to buying cheaper substitutes from rival firms, and so its market share will fall drastically. Thus an oligopolistic firm faces not one but two demand curves, each with a different elasticity.Show MoreRelatedPlanning Is The Process Of Determining Appropriate Goals And Courses Of Action1401 Words   |  6 Pageswell as what the company does (i.e. selling goods or services) and who they do it with (i.e. people of certain demographic or geographic location). The next phase in the planning process is formulating a strategy. Formulating a strategy is done by examining a company’s present situation and creating strategies to overcome any challenges facing the company. This method gives people from different departments direction which is advantageous when attempting to achieve the company’s desired future stateRead MoreDiageo Marketing Strategy2798 Words   |  12 Pagesbrands than any other drinks company and market leadership in many of the major growth markets around the world. Diageo’s unique STP strategy has allowed it develop into a globally renowned brand with an operating profit of over  £2 billion in 2005. With its headquarters in London, Diageo has experienced rapid expansion with over 80 offices worldwide employing around 20,000 workers. The firm’s recent success can be largely attributed to its efficient market segmentation and product diversificationRead MoreMarketing Strategy and the Contemporary Challenges in Marketing Effectivness: a Case Study15886 Words   |  64 PagesTransport would be taken. Some of the theory revealed that organizations that engaged in strategic management generally outperform those that do not. The attainment of an appropriate match or â€Å"fit† between an organization’s environment and its strategy, structure, and processes has positive effects on the organization’s performance. For example, a study of the impact of deregulation on U.S. railr oads found that railroads that changed their strategy as their environment changed outperformed those that didRead MoreQmb 360013075 Words   |  53 Pagesprice break by buying ice in bulk. Second, the cost of larger iceboxes can be spread over more units (sales), keeping the cost per sale low. Text problem p. 279 also asked for conditions that might lead to diseconomies of scale. PROBLEMS 1. Bill’s Barbershop a. B3-a = 10+8+15+20+9 = 62 minutes B3-b = 10+8+10+20+9=57 minutes b. B4 c. process cycle time is 20 min./60 = 3 customers/hr. (8 hrs) = 24 customers per day 102 PART 2 Managing Processes 2. Barbara’s Boutique a. 3 [the bottleneck is

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Introduction of Coffee Drink in Prague Research Proposal

Essays on Introduction of Coffee Drink in Prague Research Proposal The paper "Introduction of Coffee Drink in Prague" is an excellent example of a research proposal on statistics. The main aim of the research is to determine the reaction of the residence of Prague on the introduction of coffee drink to the region. Study design The study design shall be descriptive and cross-sectional which shall be carried out in the Prague area. The study shall employ the descriptive and cross-sectional study design because they involve establishing information concerning knowledge, attitude and the practice of the people of Prague towards coffee drink. The major advantage of using this sturdy design is because; descriptive sturdy design helps to determine and reports the way things are and fully describes the behavior, values, attitudes, and characteristics of the community. While the cross-sectional study design helps in ensuring that an adequate population is reached. Study Area The study is to be carried in Prague. Prague is a region that has different people o f cultures, taboos, and religion. It provides a good sample population since they shall provide different and genuine results that are not biased. Study population The study population is focused on both genders above 12 years of age, and residing in the Prague area. Before the interview begins, permission shall be obtained from the local area administrator and the respondent will be explained to the importance of the research in the area, afterward, their consent is obtained. Inclusion ad exclusion criteria Inclusion criteria All men and women above 12 years of age All men and women above 12 years consenting to participate All men and women above 12 years present in Prague during the study period Exclusion criteria All men and women outside the study area All men and women above 12 years with no consent to participate in the study All men and women above 12 years absent during the study period Sampling technique and sample size Sampling technique The respondent is selected in Prag ue using a systematic random sampling technique Sample size Yamane’s formula is to be used to calculate the sample size. This is in accordance with Israel in 2006, a simplified method that can be used to calculate proportions. The formula has also been used in a number of studies involving a known finite population. The formula is:n- The sample sizeN- The population, which will be given by 10% of the men and women of Praguee- The desired level of precisione- Level of acceptable error = 0.05  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  My target group has a total of 1200000 people, therefore, = 120000Hence, my study population is 120000My sample population is;  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  N= 120000  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   e = 0.05   n=  =398n= 398 which is my sample size.  Pre-testing The questionnaire that is made is to be pretested in a particular area, by giving 20nmen and women to fill. It will help to test the efficiency and the e ffectiveness of the questionnaire to collect the required data during the actual study to meet the objectives. Adjustments shall be done to ensure the volatility and reliability of the data during the actual study. Data management and analysis The data gathered will be processed in a stepwise approach, that be shall start by data cleaning to ensure all incomplete questionnaires are not analyzed. The completed questionnaires are coded for easy handling. The coded data is entered in the computer as a back up to the hard copy. Data analysis is done by the use of SPSS and Microsoft office excel. The quantitative data is presented and displayed by the use of graphs representation in the form of tables, bar graphs and pie-charts(Associate Onwuegbuzie 2010, P. 11).

Reynolds Price on writing for performance Essay Example For Students

Reynolds Price: on writing for performance Essay TCG has just published Full Moon and Other Plays, the second collection of plays by award-winning novelist Reynolds Price. Like his dramatic trilogy, New Music (published by TCG in 1990), this new collection is graced with Prices undisputed talents for compassionate characterization and lyrical prose. Spanning his professional playwriting career, the collection includes Full Moon (1992), Private Contentment (1982) and Early Dark (1977). All three plays are delicate examinations of love, faith, family and race, written in the eloquent and witty vernacular of North Carolina. In this essay, written in the summer of 1990, Price explores why he writes for the stage and screen. The first sizable piece I wrote was a playa Christmas play in December 1946 when I was in the eighth gradeand I wrote it on my own time, without a school assignment and with no hope of a stage production. I cant remember why, beyond the fact that Id grown up as an avid consumer of the lively films of the 30s and 40s and that a touring troupe had visited our small-town school only a few months before. (I saw them play both Romeo and Juliet and The Taming of the Shrew and was deeply excited.) Even more crucially, Id grown up in two extended families of excellent and epic conversationalists; so my taste for good talk was keen. And by the time I was into adolescence, I understood what serious talking skills were now required of me economy, interest, drama and wit. Apparently Id also seen that similar skills could lead me from home and family to adult work and lasting rewards. But for years I was slack. Early in high school I wrote a screenplay about St. Bernadette of Lourdes for a planned neighborhood home movie production that failed for lack of funds. Then my courting of a stage or screen audience cooled for a long time, to revive only when I was commissioned in 1964 to adapt my first novel, A Long and Happy Life, for a film. When that script also failed to reach production, I waited more than a decade before rethinking it for that stage as Early Dark. Then at last I was given a deep, sweet taste of the working theatre the WPA Theatre in New York gave Early Dark a nearly ideal production in 1978 and at last I was caught. Id fallen in love, not only with the seductive, gritty air of the stage but with that art of playwriting, so different in its demands from the novel, the poem or the essay, and so refreshing by turns. In the early 80s then, I began a script for American Playhouse. That resulted happily in Private Contentment, which was broadcast in the Playhouses premiere season. Next, in the mid-80s, a commission from Hendrix College elicited a play called August Snow, which was so perfectly played by student actors that I was quickly led to write two further plays about the same characters. The resulting trilogy, New Music, charts the lives of one married couple, their kin and friends as they advance through the years from the 1930s to the mid-70s. It had a first and splendid production as a trilogy in the fall of 1989 at the Cleveland Play House, under a grant from the Fund for New American Plays. Since then Ive completed a sixth play, Full Moon, which had its professional premiere last spring at New Stage in Jackson, Miss.; and Im presently mulling at least one more. The challenge of conveying to an audience of strangers an arrestingly fresh but partly familiar world, with only the help of stripped-down speech and thoughtful bodies, continues to engage me powerfully and in ways that none of my other work affords; so I plainly hope to work ahead, long years to come, in the narrow but endless frame of the stage.

Thursday, April 23, 2020

Lady of the House of Love free essay sample

Response/Analytical Task Explain how the writer, Angela Carter, has created the gothic in the text and how she has subverted (to do the opposite of) it? How effective is this text? In the story ‘The Lady of the House of Love’ Angela Carter uses gothic elements like using the themes of supernatural, a prophecy, setting, a damsel in distress and tyrannical figure. The theme of supernatural/inexplicable events is very prominent in this story. The protagonist is a vampire who is a creature made of myths. The countess is the queen of the vampires and has survived for many centuries. Shadows that have no source in anything visible where a cracked mirror suspended from a wall does not reflect a presence. ’ This quote uses symbolism and implies the existence of a vampire as vampires live only in dark shadows and their reflections do not show in a mirror. Also the cracked mirror symbolizes bad luck that is always associated with dark, evil creatures. We will write a custom essay sample on Lady of the House of Love or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Prophecies are common in this story. The countess repeatedly plays tarot cards every day and towards the end she predicts a love prophecy. The quote ‘She plays her game of patience until she grows hungry, until she is ravenous’ tells of the countess playing her tarot cards everyday until it is time for her to feed. Instead of saying she is dealing tarot cards Carter has stated the lady is playing a game of patience. By using a metaphor Carter shows that ‘the game of patience’ represents the countess waits patiently everyday for her fate to change and only leaves to feed on her next victim. The setting of this story is at an abandoned village where only a stone lion head and the old luxurious mansion are ever visited. At last the revenants became so troublesome the peasants abandoned the village and it fell solely into the possession of subtle and vindictive inhabitants who manifest their presences by shadows that fall almost imperceptibly awry. ’ This quote shows the village was abandoned because of the revived countess and the fear the villagers have for her. The vocabulary used is very effective. The words subtle and vindictive show her presence is like a slowly creeping evil that causes these villagers to hate the land. The countess seems to be the damsel in distress in this story but as readers we also find the tyrannical figure side of her. She does not wish to be a vampire and is always trying to change her fate but on the other hand she lures travelers into her domain and takes their lives with no hesitation. This is different to most gothic stories as usually the tyrannical figure is supposed to be male and the women are supposed to be the pure virginal ones. In this story the young virginal man is the one who ‘exorcises’ her and she is the one who dies. In this text Carter switches the countess’ role from being the damsel in distress and the tyrannical figure. She is portrayed as a pitiful being first who had an unlucky fate forced upon her. But then she shows the animalistic side of her who has murdered many people over many centuries. This is shown in the quote ‘She drops, now, on all fours’ which shows that she can become inhuman and only hunger for blood. Also in gothic texts the pure figure is usually a female but in this story it is a male that ‘exorcises’ a female. The usually used genders in gothic texts are reversed. It is more common for an estate or a large mansion to be abandoned but in ‘The Lady of the House of Love’ the whole village is abandoned and only the countess remains. This story is effective because it is narrated from a 3rd person point of view and therefore shows us what each character is feeling and their thoughts. By showing us what each character thinks we can better understand their actions and personality. The pure male is also the hero of the story as he changes the countess’s fate and turns her into a human but at the same time he kills the tyrannical figure that was also the protagonist.

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Greek Cultral Contributions

Greek Cultral Contributions Free Online Research Papers There are influences and contributions found throughout the world. One such example is through the ancient Greeks. During the period of ancient Greece there were several intelligent men whose theories and ideas helped lead to these great contributions. They are now known as the Greek philosophers. These philosophers include, Heraclitus, Pericles, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. The Greeks were seemingly much ahead of their time through their beliefs and interest. An as a result, they greatly influenced our society and world today. Perhaps the greatest contribution of the Greeks to society is democracy. By definition democracy means: a government by the people, or a form of government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised directly by them or by their elected agents under a free electoral system. The Greek philosopher Pericles felt that in order for a democracy to succeed it must first contain an authority figure or someone in a leadership role. It was a general belief that in order to maintain this form of government it would require the cooperation of all of the citizens. However, under Greek control it was limited to only white males with property. Today, in American society democracy is available to everyone regardless of his or her race or sex. According to Pericles there are steps necessary for democracy to be present. The first is that one should not care how another enjoys himself as long as it is in private and not in public and thus in public view everyone is to maintain the law. The next is, each person should be interested in not only themselves but also the state. The Greeks were extremely interested in what was happening in their world. Similarly, today we vote as a way of showing our interest in our country’s government. Lastly one must never rush into action, for one acts before debating the consequences then the results are often negative. Through democracy there was never a guarantee of prosperity but a democracy did provide more assistance. Another unique Greek contribution is the idea of questioning everything. The Greek kings made laws, however, eventually the people began to challenge this. They said that the kings were not God so how could they say what was a law. Therefore, American society did not create the idea of questioning as many may think. Instead, the Greeks did because once one questions the king’s authority who else is left. The idea of questioning was mainly put forth by Socrates. He established a method called the Socratic method, which includes a question and answer technique. After the Peloponnesian War the authority figures did not often approve of such ideas. Socrates believed so strongly in the process of questioning that he put his life on the line in an effort to make his ideas known. When he was accused of corrupting the youth through his teaching he refused to back down from his beliefs and was in turn put to death. This is certainly a contribution of the Greeks that is every present in the American society. Another, somewhat contribution of the Greeks to the world comes through their protection of women. For instance, Hector, from Homer’s Illiad, tells his wife, Andromache, to go spin and weave and take care of the children while he goes off to war. Hector felt that it was his duty to fight to protect his wife. Although, in our society today women are not nearly as restricted they still have certain limits necessary for protection. For example, women are not put on the front line in battle to fight for fear of rape. However, the fear is that of the society not of the women. Nevertheless, the Greeks believed in protecting women just as many societies, including ours, do today. Yet another contribution is the Greek idea that man can do anything with time and reason. The Greeks invented the Olympics as a competition for sportsmen to discover who is the best or to determine excellence. Correspondingly, in the present day we use such Olympic oriented events to prove excellence and that man can do anything if he takes his time. For instance, today we have the Special Olympics in which people with disabilities compete. These people much use enormous time and determination to overcome the great obstacles that stand in their way. The Greeks also made some contribution to the idea of life after death. The philosophers Heraclitus, Plato, Hume suggested that perhaps this idea was out of reach of ordinary thought, however, they still contemplated the idea. They did not simply wonder about this issue but researched it. Thus, they became some the first people to actually research one’s fate after physical death. Even though some of their findings were incorrect such as, reincarnation, nevertheless they made a gallant effort to discover the truth. Drama was yet another contribution of the Greeks. The Greek states supported drama because they felt that it was a way of educating the citizens. The first Greek dramas were tragedies. Despite being so long ago these drama deal with issues that we also find in our world today. For example, they included the conflict of good verses evil, people’s rights, spiritually, and human nature. Similarly comedy was also developed from the Greeks. Much like our present day comedies, the Greek comedies contained obscene jokes as a way of entertaining the audience. Another factor is that of reason. Both Socrates and Plato believed that the knowledge of morals must be based on reason. Therefore, they helped to contribute the idea that people should act off of their honorable and just instincts. For instance, it could be said that all societies have evolved in some form of evil because they all evolved from slavery. Slavery is viewed as being wrong because it makes one man master over another man. Therefore, if what is ethical is based on reason slavery could not possibly withstand the test of reason. This contributes to American society, because despite having issues with slavery in the past, the American society of today now views slavery in the same light as the great Greek philosophers. It simply is not right to take charge over another human being. The Greeks had a general interest of wisdom to which they contributed worldwide. This interest spread throughout the generations. From Socrates to Plato, Plato to Aristotle, and Aristotle to Alexander the Great the Greeks continuously distributed this curiosity universally. Plato, a follower of Socrates formed a school called the Academy, in which Aristotle studied. Then as Alexander the Great traveled through his many adventures he carried with him all that he had learned from his great instructor. However, Alexander was not simply satisfied with what he learned from Aristotle, he continued in an effort to learn throughout his life and consequently spread it to the nations that he conquered. In today’s world it is evident that we gained this trait on from the Greeks, because once we gain an interest on a specific topic we strive to learn everything we possibly can on that subject. Americans, like many other societies of the world, like to believe that we are supreme and often develop our own ideas. However, it is evident that many of our unique views on life were in fact copied from the Greeks. If you study the concepts of the Greeks it is clearly similar to that of the Americans. The Greek people were very unique in comparison to other world cultures of their time. Similarly, the Americans share that unique quality as they learned from the ancient Greeks. Kagan, Donald. â€Å"Pericles of Athens and The Birth of Democracy.† Humanities. 26 (1991): 7. Moody, Raymond A. â€Å"Near Death Experiences in Ancient Greek Philosophy; The Origins of Rational Inquiry Into the Afterlife.† Journal of Spirituality Paranormal. 30 (2007): 5-9. Mufuka, K. Nyamayaro, and Ricketson, William F. An Introduction To Western Civilization. Donalds: Voice of Truths, 2000 Perry, Marvin. Western Civilization Ideas, Politics, and Society. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. 2007 Spielvogel, Jackson J. Western Civilization. Belmont: Thomson Wadsworth. 2006 Research Papers on Greek Cultral ContributionsBringing Democracy to AfricaComparison: Letter from Birmingham and CritoAssess the importance of Nationalism 1815-1850 EuropeQuebec and CanadaEffects of Television Violence on ChildrenRelationship between Media Coverage and Social and19 Century Society: A Deeply Divided EraWhere Wild and West MeetHip-Hop is ArtThe Effects of Illegal Immigration

Saturday, February 29, 2020

A Comparative Study of Professional and Traditional College Students Perception Towards Two Wheeler Brands

A RESEARCH REPORT ON â€Å"A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PROFESSIONAL AND TRADITIONAL COLLEGE STUDENTS PERCEPTION TOWARDS TWO WHEELER BRANDS† CONTENTS 1. HISTORY OF BAJAJ ? Profile ? Key Person ? Bajaj Introduction ? Company History ? Timeline Of New Release 2. HISTORY OF HERO HONDA ? Board Of Directors ? Company Profile 3. HISTORY OF TVS 4. OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH 5. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ? Data Source ? Research Approach ? Sampling Unit ? Data Completion And Analysis ? Scope 6. LIMITATION OF RESEARCH STUDY 7. ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 8. FINDINGS 9. CONCLUSION 10. RECOMMENDATION 11. BIBLIOGRAPHY 12. QUETIONNAIRE Bajaj Auto limited is one of the largest two wheeler manufacturing company in India apart from producing two wheelers they also manufacture three wheelers. The company had started way back in 1945. Initially it used to import the two wheelers from outside, but from 1959 it started manufacturing of two wheelers in the country. By the year 1970 Bajaj Auto had rolled out their 100,000th vehicle. Bajaj scooters and motor cycles have become an integral part of the Indian milieu and over the years have come to represent the aspirations of modern India. Bajaj Auto also has a technical tie up with Kawasaki heavy industries of Japan to produce the latest motorcycles in India which are of world class quality The Bajaj Kawasaki eliminator has emerged straight out of the drawing board of Kawasaki heavy industries. The core brand values of Bajaj Auto limited includes Learning, Innovation, Perfection, Speed and Transparency. Bajaj Auto has three manufacturing units in the country at Akurdi, Waluj and Chakan in Maharashtra, western India, which produced 2,314,787 vehicles in 2005-06. The sales are backed by a network of after sales service and maintenance work Shops all over the country. Bajaj Auto has products which cater to every segment of the Indian two wheeler market Bajaj CT 100 Dlx offers a great value for money at the entry level. Similarly Bajaj Discover 125 offers the consumer a great performance without making a big hole in the pocket. Bajaj Auto is a major Indian automobile manufacturer. It is Indias largest and the worlds 4th largest two- and three-wheeler maker. It is based in Pune, Maharashtra, with plants in Waluj near Aurangabad, Akurdi and Chakan, near Pune. Bajaj Auto makers motor scooters, motorcycles and the auto rickshaw. COMPANYS HISTORY Bajaj Auto came into existence on November 29, 1945 as M/s Bachraj Trading Corporation Private Limited. It started off by selling imported two- and three-wheelers in India. In 1959, it obtained license from the Government of India to manufacture two- and three-wheelers and it went public in 1960. In 1970, it rolled out its 100,000th vehicle. In 1977, it managed to produce and sell 100,000 vehicles in a single financial year. In 1985, it started producing at Waluj in Aurangabad. In 1986, it managed to produce and sell 500,000 vehicles in a single financial year. In 1995, it rolled out its ten millionth vehicles and produced and sold 1 million vehicles in a year. Timeline of new releases ? 1971 three-wheeler goods carrier ? 1972 Bajaj Chetak ? 1976 Bajaj Super ? 1977 Rear engine Autorickshaw ? 1981 Bajaj M-50 ? 1986 Bajaj M-80, Kawasaki Bajaj KB100 ? 1990 Bajaj Sunny ? 1994 Bajaj Classic ? 1995 Bajaj Super Excel ? 1997 Kawasaki Bajaj Boxer, Rear Engine Diesel Autorickshaw ? 1998 Kawasaki Bajaj Caliber, Legend(Indias first four-stroke scooter) ? 2000 Bajaj Saffire ? 2001 Eliminator, Pulsar 2003 Caliber115, Bajaj Wind 125, Bajaj Pulsar ? 2004 Bajaj CT 100, New Bajaj Chetak 4-stroke with Wonder Gear, Bajaj Discover DTS-i ? 2005 Bajaj Wave, Bajaj Avenger, Bajaj Discover ? 2006 Bajaj Platina ? 2007 Bajaj Pulsar-200 Scooters ? Bajaj Sunny ? Bajaj Chetak ? Bajaj Cub ? Bajaj Super ? Bajaj Wave ? Bajaj Legend Motorcycles ? Kawasaki Eliminator ? Bajaj Pulsar ? Bajaj Kawasaki Wind 125 ? Bajaj Boxer ? Bajaj CT 100 ? Bajaj Platina ? Baja j Caliber ? Bajaj Discover ? Bajaj Avenger ? Bajaj Pulsar 220 DTS-Fi Upcoming Models Bajaj Krystal ? Bajaj Blade ? Bajaj Sonic ? Bajaj XCD String New Image The company, over the last decade has successfully changed its image from a scooter manufacturer to a two wheeler manufacturer, product range ranging from Scooterettes to Scooters to Motorcycle. Its real growth in numbers has come in the last 4 years after successful introduction of a few models in the motorcycle segment. The company is headed by Rahul Bajaj who is worth more than US$1. 5 billion. India has the largest number of two wheelers in the world with 41. 6 million vehicles. India has a mix of 30 percent automobiles and 70 percent two wheelers in the country. India was the second largest two wheeler manufacturer in the world starting in the 1950’s with the birth of Automobile Products of India (API) that manufactured scooters. API manufactured the Lambrettas but, another company, Bajaj Auto Ltd. surpassed API and remained through the turn of the century from its association with Piaggio of Italy (manufacturer of Vespa). The license raj that existed between the1940s to1980s in India, did not allow foreign companies to enter the market and imports were tightly controlled. This regulatory maze, before the economic liberalization, made business easier for local players to have a seller’s market. Customers in India were forced to wait 12 years to buy a scooter from Bajaj. The CEO of Bajaj commented that he did not need a marketing department, only a dispatch department. By the year 1990, Bajaj had a waiting list that was twenty-six times its annual output for scooters. The motorcycle segment had the same long wait times with three manufacturers; Royal Enfield, Ideal Jawa, and Escorts. Royal Enfield made a 350cc Bullet with the only four-stroke engine at that time and took the higher end of the market but, there was little competition for their customers. Ideal Jawa and Escorts took the middle and lower end of the market respectively. In the mid-1980s, the Indian government regulations changed and permitted foreign companies to enter the Indian market through minority joint ventures. The two-wheeler market changed with four Indo-Japanese joint ventures: Hero Honda, TVS Suzuki, Bajaj Kawasaki and Kinetic Honda. The entry of these foreign companies changed the Indian arket dynamics from the supply side to the demand side. With a larger selection of two-wheelers on the Indian market, consumers started to gain influence over the products they bought and raised higher customer expectations. The industry produced more models, styling options, prices, and different fuel efficiencies. The foreign companies new technologies helped make the products more reliable and with be tter quality. Indian companies had to change to keep up with their global counterparts. Hero Honda Motorcycles Limited is an Indian manufacturer of motorcycles and scooters. Hero Honda is a joint venture that began in 1984 between the Hero group of India and Honda from Japan. It has been the worlds biggest manufacturer of 2-wheeled motorized vehicles since 2001, when it produced 1. 3 million motorbikes in a single year. Hero Hondas Splendor is the worlds largest selling motorcycle. Its 2 plants are in Dharuhera and Gurgaon, both in Haryana, India. It specializes in dual use motorcycles that are low powered but very fuel efficient. [Models] Bikes ? Hero Honda Splendor Plus ? Hero Honda Passion Plus ? Hero Honda Karizma ? Hero Honda CBZ ? Hero Honda Super Splendor Hero Honda CD Dawn ? Hero Honda CD Deluxe ? Hero Honda Achiever ? Hero Honda Glamour ? Hero Honda Ambition Hero Honda Splendor Model COMPANY PROFILE â€Å"Hero†, is the brand name used by the Munjal brothers in the year 1956 with the flagship company Hero Cycles. The two-wheeler manufacturing business of bicycle components had originally started in the 1940’s and turned into the wor ld’s largest bicycle manufacturer today. Hero, is a name synonymous with two-wheelers in India today. The Munjals roll their own steel, make free wheel bicycle critical components and have diversified into different ventures like product design. The Hero Group philosophy is: â€Å"To provide excellent transportation to the common man at easily affordable prices and to provide total satisfaction in all its spheres of activity†. The Hero group vision is to build long lasting relationships with everyone (customers, workers, dealers and vendors). The Hero Group has a passion for setting higher standards and â€Å"Engineering Satisfaction† is the prime motivation, way of life and work culture of the Group. In the year 1984, Mr. Brijmohan Lal Munjal, the Chairman and Managing Director of Hero Honda Motors (HHM), headed an alliance between the Munjal family and Honda Motor Company Ltd. HMC). HHM Mission Statement is: â€Å"We, at Hero Honda, are continuously striving for synergy between technology, systems, and human resources to provide products and services that meet the quality, performance, and price aspirations of our customers. While doing so, we maintain the highest standards of ethics and societal responsibil ities, constantly innovate products and processes, and develop teams that keep the momentum going to take the company to excellence in the new millennium†. This alliance became one of the most successful joint ventures in India, until the year 1999 when HMC had announced a 100% subsidiary, Honda Motorcycle Scooter India (HMSI). This announcement caused the HHM stock price to decrease by 30 percent that same day. Munjal had to come up with some new strategic decisions as, HMSI and other foreign new entry companies were causing increased intensity of rivalry for HHM. GROWTH The business growth of Hero Honda has been phenomenal throughout its early days. The Munjal family started a modest business of bicycle components. Hero Group expanded so big that by 2002 they had sold 86 million bicycles producing 16000 bicycles a day. Today Hero Honda has an assembly line of 9 different models of motorcycles available. It holds the record for most popular bike in the world by sales for Its Splendor model. Hero Honda Motors Limited was established in joint venture with Honda Motors of Japan in 1984, to manufacture motorcycles. It is currently the largest producer of Two Wheelers in the world. It sold 3 million bikes in the year 2005-2006. Recently it has also entered in scooter manufacturing, with its model PLEASURE mainly aimed at girls. The Hero Group has done business differently right from the start and that is what has helped them to achieve break-through in the competitive two-wheeler market. The Groups low key, but focused, style of management has earned the company plaudits amidst investors, employees, vendors and dealers, as also worldwide recognition. The growth of the Group through the years has been influenced by a number of factors: Just-in-Time The Hero Group through the Hero Cycles Division was the first to introduce the concept of just-in-time inventory. The Group boasts of superb operational efficiencies. Every assembly line worker operates two machines simultaneously to save time and improve productivity. The fact that most of the machines are either developed or fabricated in-house, has resulted in low inventory levels. In Hero Cycles Limited, the just-in-time inventory principle has been working since the beginning of production in the unit and is functional even till date.. This is the Japanese style of production and in India; Hero is probably the only company to have mastered the art of the just-in-time inventory principle. Ancillarisation An integral part of the Group strategy of doing business differently was providing support to ancillary units. There are over 300 ancillary units today, whose production is dedicated to Heros requirements and also a large number of other vendors, which include some of the better known companies in the automotive segment. Employee Policy: Another Striking feature within the Hero Group is the commitment and dedication of its workers. There is no organized labor union and family members of employees find ready employment within Hero. The philosophy with regard to labor management is Hero is growing, grow with Hero. When it comes to workers benefits, the Hero Group is known for providing facilities, further ahead of the industry norms. Long before other companies did so, Hero was giving its employees a uniform allowance, as well as House Rent Allowance (HRA) and Leave Travel Allowance (LTA). Extra benefits took the form of medical check-ups, not just for workers, but also for the immediate family members. Dealer Network The relationship of Hero Group with their dealers is unique in its closeness. The dealers are considered a part of the Hero family. A nation-wide dealer network comprising of over 5,000 outlets, and have a formidable distribution system in place. Sales agents from Hero travels to all the corners of the country, visiting dealers and send back daily postcards with information on the stock position that day, turnover, fresh purchases, anticipated demand and also competitor action in the region. The manufacturing units have a separate department to handle dealer complaints and problems and the first response is always given in 24 hours. Financial Planning The Hero Group benefits from the Group Chairmans financial acumen and his grasp on technology, manufacturing and marketing. Group Company, Hero Cycles Limited has one of the highest labor productivity rates in the world. In Hero Honda Motors Limited, the focus is on financial and raw material management and a low employee turnover. Quality Quality at Hero is attained not just by modern plants and equipment and through latest technology, but by enforcing a strict discipline. At the Group factories, attaining quality standards is an everyday practice a strictly pursued discipline. It comes from an amalgamation of the latest technology with deep-rooted experience derived from nearly four decades of hard labor. It is an attitude that masters the challenge of growth and change change in consumers perceptions about products and new aspirations arising from a new generation of buyers. Constant technology up gradation ensures that the Group stays in the global mainstream and maintains its competitive edge. With each of its foreign collaborations, the Group goes onto strengthen its quality measures as per the book. The Group also employs the services of independent experts from around the world to assist in new design and production processes. Diversification Throughout the years of enormous growth, the Group Chairman, Mr. Lall has actively looked at diversification. A considerable level of backward integration in its manufacturing activities has been ample in the Groups growth and led to the establishment of the Hero Cycles Cold Rolling Division, Munjal and Sunbeam Castings, Munjal Auto Components and Munjal Showa Limited amongst other component-manufacturing units. Then there were the expansion into the automotive segment with the setting up of Majestic Auto Limited, where the first indigenously designed moped, Hero Majestic, went into commercial production in 1978. Then came Hero Motors which introduced Hero Puch, in collaboration with global technology leader Steyr Daimler Puch of Austria. Hero Honda Motors was established in 1984 to manufacture 100 cc motorcycles. The Hero Group also took a venture into other segments like exports, financial services, information technology, which includes customer response services and software development. Further expansion is expected in the areas of Insurance and Telecommunication. The Hero Groups phenomenal growth is the result of constant innovations, a close watch on costs and the dynamic leadership of the Group Chairman, characterized by a culture of entrepreneurship, of right attitudes and building stronger relationships with investors, partners, vendors and dealers and customers TVS MOTOR COMPANY The TVS group was established in 1911 by Shri. T. V. Sundaram Iyengar. As one of India’s largest industrial entities it epitomizes Trust, Value and Service. It all began way back in 1984 when Sundaram Clayton Limited (A TVS Group company) introduced its 50 CC mopeds in the arena of road racing, notching up unbelievable speeds of 105 kmph. Since then, there has been no looking back for TVS Motor Company. TVS Racing was established in 1987 with the objective of improving the performance of its bikes. Over the years it has provided valuable data, design inputs, development of reliable motorcycle models, excellent vehicle dynamics handling etc. The true evidence of it is seen in todays TVS Victor and TVS Fiero. Today, there are over thirty companies in the TVS Group, employing more than 40,000 people worldwide and with a turnover in excess of USD 2. 2 billion. With steady growth, expansion and diversification, TVS commands a strong presence in manufacturing of two-wheelers, auto components and computer peripherals. We also have vibrant businesses in the distribution of heavy commercial vehicles passenger cars, finance and insurance. TVS Motor Company Limited, the flagship company of the USD 2. billion TVS Group, is the third largest two-wheeler manufacturer in India and among the top ten in the world, with an annual turnover of over USD 650 million. The year 1980 is one to be remembered for the Indian two-wheeler industry, with the roll out of TVS 50, Indias first two-seater moped that ushered in an era of affordable personal transportation. For the Indian Automobile sector, it was a breakthrough to be etched in history. TV S Motor Company is the first two-wheeler manufacturer in the world to be honoured with the hallmark of Japanese Quality – The Deming Prize for Total Quality Management. OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH 1. To analyze the customer satisfaction. 2. To analyze the customer preference. 3. To know which manufacturer is providing better services. 4. To analyze after sales services of bikes. 5. To study the behavioral factors of consumers in motor bikes. 6. To suggest various factors to improve sales. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY It is well known fact that the most important step in marketing research process is to define the problem. Choose for investigation because a problem well defined is half solved. That was the reason that at most care was taken while defining various parameters of the problem. After giving through brain storming session, objectives were selected and the set on the base of these objectives. A questionnaire was designed major emphasis of which was gathering new ideas or insight so as to determine and bind out solution to the problems. DATA SOURCE Research included gathering both Primary and Secondary data. Primary data is the first hand data, which are selected a fresh and thus happen to be original in character. Primary Data was crucial to know various customers and past consumer views about bikes and to calculate the market share of this brand in regards to other brands. Secondary data are those which has been collected by some one else and which already have been passed through statistical process. Secondary data has been taken from internet, newspaper, magazines and companies web sites. RESEARCH APPROACH The research approach was used survey method which is a widely used method for data collection and best suited for descriptive type of research survey includes research instrument like questionnaire which can be structured and unstructured. Target population is well identified and various methods like personal interviews and telephone interviews are employed. SAMPLING UNIT It gives the target population that will be sampled. This research was carried in Indore (Distt. Indore). These were 90 respondents. DATA COMPLETION AND ANALYSIS After the data has been collected, it was tabulated and findings of the project were presented followed by analysis and interpretation to reach certain conclusions. SCOPE My project was based on the A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PROFESSIONAL AND TRADITIONAL COLLEGE STUDENTS PERCEPTION TOWARDS TWO WHEELER BRANDS and data was taken in the City Indore only. LIMITATION 1. Research work was carried out in one Distt of U. P. (INDORE) only the finding may not be applicable to the other parts of the country because of social and cultural differences. 2. The sample was collected using connivance-sampling techniques. As such result may not give an exact representation of the population. 3. Shortage of time is also reason for incomprehensiveness. 4. The views of the people are biased therefore it doesn’t reflect true picture. Q1) Which bike do you have? Hero Honda |30 | | | | |Bajaj |30 | | | | |Any other |30 | | | | INTERPRETATION: Out of the sample size of 90 customers, 30 customers are of Hero Honda, 30 are of Bajaj and 30 customers of TVS bikes are taken into consideration. |Q2) Which Model do you Have? | | | | | | | | | | |Hero Honda | |Bajaj | |TVS | | | | | | | | | |Splender |13 |CT 100 |5 |Flame |4 | | | | | | | | |Passion |5 |Discover |11 |Star City |9 | | | | | | | | |Karizma |2 |Pulsar |10 |Apache |7 | | | | | | | | |Any othe r |10 |Any other |4 |Any other |10 | | | | | | | | HERO HONDA INTERPRETATION: In Hero Honda mostly the customers are having splendor while the ratio of the customers using Passion, Karizma and other bikes are comparatively low. BAJAJ INTERPRETATION: In Bajaj the customers are giving more preference to Discover and Pulsar models. TVS INTERPRETATION:- In TVS Bikes the customers are givig more preference to the other models rather than Flame,Starcityand Apache. |Q3) In which family Income level do you Fall? | | | |100000-200000 |22 | | | | |200000-300000 |45 | | | | |300000-400000 |23 | | | | |above 400000 |10 | | | | INTERPRETATION: The maximum numbers of customers that are using these bikes fall in the income group of 200000-300000. While this ratio is minimum in case of customers whose income level fall between 300000-400000. |Q4) For how long do you own a bike? | | | | | |0-1 year |34 | | | | | |1-2 year | |29 | | | | | |2-3 year | |26 | | | | | |above 3 year | |11 | | | | | INTERPRETATION: It is observed that mostly the customers are having new bikes. | |Q5) For what purpose do you use your Motor Bike? | | | | | | | | | | | | |Hero Honda | |Bajaj |TVS | | | | | | | | | | |Office Purpose |13 | |42 |38 | | | | | | | | | | | |Personal purpose |17 | |15 |27 | | | | | | | | | | | |Joy Purpose |10 | |18 |10 | | | | | | | | | | | |Other |40 | |15 |15 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | INTERPRETATION:- The customers are using their bikes mostly for official and personal purpose. | |Q6) How do you come to know about this Motor Bike? | | | | | | | | | | | |Hero Honda |Bajaj |TVS | | | | | | | | | | |Newspaper |28 |33 |22 | | | | | | | | | | |Television |22 |28 |18 | | | | | | | | | | |Magazine |8 |16 |28 | | | | | | | | | | |Friends Relative |37 |13 |22 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | INTERPRETATION: It is observed that the awareness of Hero Honda bikes mostly comes from friends while of Bajaj and TVS the awareness comes from newspapers and televisions. Q7) Does Advertisement Influence your decision in choosing a Motor Bike? Yes |65 | | | | |No |15 | | | | |Can’t say |10 | | | | INTERPRETATION: Out of the sample size of 90 customers, 65 customers agrees with the fact that advertisements play a very significant role in influencing their behavior to choose the bike. On the other hand 15 customers do not agree to this fact. While remaining 10 customers are not sure about it. Q8 Are you satisfied with the performance of the bike that you are currently havin? Yes |55 | | | | |No |28 | | | | |Can’t say |7 | | | | INTERPRETATION:- Out of the sample size of 90 customers, 55 customers says that they are satisfied with the performance of their bikes. On the other hand 28 customers are not satisfied with the performance of the bikes that they are having. While the remaining 10 customers are unable to say anything. |Q9) Do you have full knowledge about Bikes before buying? | | | | | | | |Hero Honda |Bajaj |TVS | | | | | | |Yes | 42 |34 |37 | | | | | | |No |37 |27 |22 | | | | | | |Can’t Say |11 |29 |31 | | | | | | INTERPRETATION:- It is observed that most of the customers are having full knowledge of the bike before purchasing. |Q10) Which Factor below Influence your decision? | | | | | | | | |Hero Honda | |Bajaj |TVS | | | | | | | |Price |17 | |22 |28 | | | | | | | |Mileage |28 | |15 |15 | | | | | | |Quality |11 | |20 |16 | | | | | | | |Resale Value |12 | |14 |17 | | | | | | | |Status symbol |32 | |19 |14 | | | | | | | HERO HONDA INTERPRETATION:- In Hero Honda bikes the mileage of the bike and the value that it adds to the status symbol of the customers influences the decision criteria of most of the customers. BAJAJ INTERPRETATION:- In Bajaj bikes customers gets more influenced by the price and quality of the bike and also they think that it adds value to their prestige. TVS INTERPRETATION: In TVS bike the economic price of the bikes influences the buying behavior of the customers. |Q11) How would you rate the following factors of Bikes with respect to different | |company? | | | | | | | | | | |Hero Honda |Bajaj TVS | | | | | | |Mileage |74% |72% |68% | | | | | | |Price |68% |65% |47% | | | | | | |Pick up |70% |80% |62% | | | | | | |Maintenance |58% |62% |74% | | | | | | |Look Shape |85% |80% |72% | | | | | | |Brand Image |53% |55% |69% | | | | | | INTERPRETATION: It is observed that in rating of different features of different bikes people give maximum rating to the look and shape of the bike. At the second level they give their rating to the pick up. At the third level they rate mileage. And at the fourth level they give points to maintenance. At last they rate price and brand image. |Q12) If new Bike with good features comes in, then would you like to change your bike? | | | | | | | |Hero Honda |Bajaj |TVS | | | | | | | |Yes |10 |16 |14 | | | | | | | | |No |16 |11 |11 | | | | | | | | |Can’t say |4 |3 |5 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | INTERPRETATION:- It is observed that the customers of Hero Honda bikes are not ready to change their bikes even if a new bike comes in with good features. While majority of the customers of Bajaj and TVS are ready to change their bikes if new bike provides some good features to them. FINDINGS During this research project I came in to contact with many customers who are having bikes. It has been found that in Hero Honda mostly the customers are having splendor while the ratio of the customers using Passion, Karizma and other bikes are comparatively low. In Bajaj the customers are giving more preference to Discover and Pulsar models and in case of TVS Bikes the customers are givig more preference to the other models rather than Flame,Starcityand Apache. The maximum numbers of customers that are using these bikes fall in the income group of 200000-300000. It has been observed that the customers are using their bikes mostly for official and personal purpose. It is observed that the awareness of Hero Honda bikes mostly comes from friends while of Bajaj and TVS the awareness comes from newspapers and televisions. Out of the sample size of 90 customers, 65 customers agree with the fact that advertisements play a very significant role in influencing their behavior to choose the bike. On the other hand 15 customers do not agree to this fact. While remaining 10 customers are not sure about it. When the customers are asked that are they satisfied with the performance of their bikes then most of them agrees to the fact. Out of the sample size of 90 customers, 55 customers says that they are satisfied with the performance of their bikes. On the other hand 28 customers are not satisfied with the performance of the bikes that they are having. While the remaining 10 customers are unable to say anything. It is observed that most of the customers are having full knowledge of the bike before purchasing. It has been seen that In Hero Honda bikes the mileage of the bike and the value that it adds to the status symbol of the customers influences the decision criteria of most of the customers. In Bajaj bikes customers gets more influenced by the price and quality of the bike and also they think that it adds value to their prestige. While in case of TVS bike the economic price of the bikes influences the buying behavior of the customers. It is observed that in rating of different features of different bikes people give maximum rating to the look and shape of the bike. At the second level they give their rating to the pick up. At the third level they rate mileage. And at the fourth level they give points to maintenance. At last they rate price and brand image. It is observed that the customers of Hero Honda bikes are not ready to change their bikes even if a new bike comes in with good features. While majority of the customers of Bajaj and TVS are ready to change their bikes if new bike provides some good features to them. Conclusion 1. Most of the Flame, Apache, Pulsar, CBZ Karizma are purchased by young generation 18 to 30 years because they prefer stylish looks and rest of the models of Hero Honda, TVS and Bajaj are purchased more by daily users who needs more average of bikes than looks. 2. Hero Honda is considered to be most fuel-efficient bike on Indian roads. 3. Service Spare parts are available throughout India in local markets also. 4. While buying a motorcycle, economy is the main consideration in form of maintenance cost, fuel efficiency. 5. Majority of the respondent had bought their motorcycle more than 3 years. RECOMONDATION 1. Bajaj should introduce some more models having more engine power. 2. Hero Honda should think about fuel efficiency in case of upper segment bikes. 3. More service centers should be opened. 4. Maintenance cost and the availability of the spare parts should also be given due importance. 5. They also introduce some good finance/discount schemes for students. 6. The price should be economic. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. www. herohonda. com 2. www. google. com 3. www. bajaj. com 4. www. twowheeler. com 5. www. extrememachines. com QUESTIONNAIRE |NAME: †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ | | | |CONTACT No. .†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. | | | | | | | |20-25 | | |AGE:- | | |15-20 | | | | | | | | | | |Above 30 | | | | | | |25-30 | | | | | | | | |Employee | | |OCCUPATION:- | | | |Businessman | | | | | | | | | | |Other | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Student | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Q1) |Which Bike do you have? | | | | | | | | | | | | | |TVS | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Q2) |Which Model do you have? | | | | | | | | | |Passion | | |Hero Honda: | | |Splendor | | | | | | | | | | |Other | | | | | | | | | | |Bajaj: | | |CT 100 | | | | | | | | | | | | |TVS:- | | |Flame | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |200000-300000 | | | | | | | | | | |1-2 year | | | | | | | | | | | |Personal Purpose | | | | | | | | | | | |Television | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Q7) |Are you satisfied with the performance of the bike that you are currently having? | | | | | | | | | |Can’t say | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Can’t say | | | | | |Yes | |No | | | | | |Q9) |Do you have full knowledge about Bikes before buying? | | | | | | | | | |Can’t say | | | | | |Yes | | |No | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Q10). Which factor below influence your decision? | | | | | | | | |Quality | | | | | | | | | |Price | | | | | |Resale Value | | | | | | Q11) How would you rate the following factors of bikes with respect to different companies? Hero Honda |Bajaj | | |Mileage | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Price | | | | | | | | | | | |Pick up | | | | | | | | | | | |Maintenance | | | | | | | | | | | |Look/Shape | | | | | | | | | | | |Brand Image | | | | | Q12) If new bike with good feature comes in, then would you like to change your bikes? |Yes | | | |Can’t say | | | | |No | | | | | | | | | | Q13) Any Suggestions for Company †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚ ¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦

Thursday, February 13, 2020

Alessandro algardi Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Alessandro algardi - Research Paper Example With the landmark of Cardinal Millini (d. 1629) in Santa Maria del Popolo, the Frangipani landmark in San Marcello al Corso, and the bust of Cardinal Laudivio Zacchia (Berlin), Algardi developed as the main opponent of Gian Lorenzo Bernini in the field of representation figure. Failing to offer Berninis dynamic imperativeness and infiltrating characterization, Algardis pictures were acknowledged for their temperance and surface authenticity. Algardis nearby companionship with Pietro da Cortona helped create his notoriety in Rome and likewise acquainted him with a classicizing style in figure that owed an extraordinary arrangement to Roman demeanor to authentic correctness and the impact of Christian antiquarianism. Maybe his most paramount requisition in the 1630s was for the marble tomb of Pope Leo XI in St. Dwindles (1644; raised 1652). Leo XI ruled as pontiff an insignificant 27 days in April 1605 (the requisition hailed from the popes incredible-nephew, Cardinal Roberto Ubaldini). Algardi accentuated Leos kindheartedness with figurative figures of benevolence and charitableness and the help model Cardinal de Medicis Legation to France. Dissimilar to Berninis tomb for Pope Alexander VII, which consolidated white and shaded marble with bronze, Algardis ecclesiastical tomb was etched altogether from white marble. After the decision of Pope Innocent X (1644), Algardi superseded Bernini in ecclesiastical support. Between this date and his demise in 1654, Algardi generated some of his most commended lives up to expectations, around them the situated statue of the pope now in the Palazzo dei Conservatori (1645) and a goliath marble easing of the Meeting of Attila and Pope Leo in St. Subsides (1646–53), which affected the improvement and advancement of illusionistic reliefs. Despite the fact that he was by and large less showy than Bernini, Algardi in this work viably made an overwhelming-size account whose foremost